List of terms
The uppermost component of a classical column, most often a plain square slab but sometimes embellished.
A substance used for bonding tile to surfaces. Other common names include thinset, glue, mud, mastic, mortar, and paste.
A canopied niche framed by colonettes, resembling a temple and intended as a shrine or votive offering; a doorway or window flanked by a pair of columns and topped by a pediment.
A variegated type of quartz showing colored bands or other markings (clouded, moss-like).
The sand, gravel or stone which is mixed with cement and water to make concrete.
Metal rod, wire, or strap that secures stone or another masonry to structural framework, backup wall, or other elements, or holds stone units together
Uppermost stone in a gable, pediment, pyramid, vault or dome.
A curved construction spanned over an opening and supported at its sides or ends. Usually made from cut stone voussoirs, or interlocking wedge-shaped blocks, that carry downward thrusts out to side walls or lateral abutments.
Originally a simple, flat, structural lintel spanning between two columns and resting directly on their capitals; the lowest component of a classical entablature. In current usage, the term refers to any molded door or window frame.
A natural or applied line on a stone from which all leveling and plumbing is measured; an edge at the intersection of two planes; the ridge between adjoining flutes on a classical column.
The American Society for Testing & Materials.
Material used as a base over which a tile is installed.
The Italian word referring to a floor trim that has a finished top edge.
One of a series of miniature columns or short uprights used to support a hand rail or coping, as in a balustrade.
A complete railing system consisting of a top handrail supported on balusters (which sometimes rest on a bottom rail).
A dense textured (aphanitic) igneous rock relatively high in iron and magnesia minerals and relatively low in silica, generally dark gray to black, and feldspathic. A general term in contradistinction to felsite, a light-colored feldspathic and highly siliceous rock of similar texture and origin.
When the angle between two sides is greater or less than a right angle.
A hard sandstone of characteristic blue, gray and buff colors quarried in the states of New York and Pennsylvania.
Used in varying percentages to anchor or bond a stone veneer to a backing material. Bond stones are generally cut to twice the bed thickness of the material being used.
A narrow strip of tile with design, texture or contrasting color that creates a design concept.
Usually a flat stone used as an edging material; generally used to retain the field of a terrace or platform.
Tile installation where each row is offset for half of its length. Also known as broken joint or staggered pattern.
Generally refers to a natural breaking of a stone either by hand or machine. The break should be at right angles to the top and bottom surface.
A sandstone of characteristic brown or reddish-brown color that results from a high amount of iron oxide as interstitial material.
Textured surface obtained by brushing a stone with a coarse rotary-type wire rush.
Convex rounding of a stone edge, such as a stair
Placing mortar on stone with a trowel before setting into place.
A limestone containing not more than 5 percent of magnesium carbonate.
White or milk-like streaks occurring in stone. The streak is a joint plane usually wider than a glass seam; it has been re-cemented by deposition of calcite in the crack and is structurally sound.
A sheltering roof, as over a niche or doorway.
A projecting element, such as a beam, supported at a single point or along a single line by a wall or column, stabilized by a counter-balancing downward force around the point of fulcrum.
The head or cap of a column.
Waterproof filler used to seal joints and make tile joints watertight.
A panel normally ¼" or ½" thick made of cement, reinforced with fiberglass used as a substrate for tile installation.
CEMENT PUTTY, also BUTTER
A thick creamy mixture made with pure cement and water, which is used to strengthen the bond between a stone and a setting bed.
A tile manufactured from natural products extracted from the earth that are shaped into tiles and then fired in kilns at extremely high temperatures.
To bevel the
junction of an exterior angle
CHAT SAWN FINISH
A rough gang saw finish produced by sawing with coarse chat.
The lightweight outer skin of a building that does not carry any weight nor support the building, but which protects it from weather elements.
Plane or planes along which a stone may likely break or delaminate.
A natural rounded stone, large enough for use in paving. Commonly used to describe paving blocks, usually granite, which are generally cut to rectangular shapes.
Freestanding or self-supporting structural element carrying forces mainly in compression, whether stone, steel or brick.
A flat stone used as a cap on a freestanding wall, usually to protect the wall from weather.
A stone forming part of a corner or angle in a wall. Also a dedicatory stone laid at the formal inauguration of a building’s construction, prominently located but not necessarily at the corner, and usually bearing the date of erection and often an inscription.
A molded projecting stone at the top of an entablature or at the meeting of a roof and wall.
A horizontal range of stone units running the length of a wall.
A trim tile having a convex radius with a flat landing on the bottom edge.
A wall treatment achieved by using stones of the same height. Horizontal joints run the entire length of the veneered area. Vertical joints are constantly broken so that no two joints will be over one another.
The time period that
a tile installation setting material must be undisturbed and allowed to set for
it to reach full strength
Slabs and blocks of stone bordering streets, walks, etc.
All stone cut or machined to given sizes, dimension or shape, and produced in accordance with working or shop drawings which have been developed from an architect’s structural drawings.
Small blocks or tooth-like projections on an entablature.
Stone pre-cut and shaped to dimensions of specified sizes.
German Institute for Standardization.
A limestone rich in magnesium carbonate, frequently somewhat crystalline in character. It is found in ledge formations in a wide variety of color tones and textures. Generally speaking, its crushing and tensile strengths are greater than the oolitic limestones, and its appearance shows greater variety in texture.
A cylindrical metal pin used in aligning and strengthening joints of adjacent stones.
A stone wall that is constructed one stone upon another, without the use of any mortar; generally used for retaining walls.
The European Committee
An elaborate beam carried by columns or located at the top of a wall; consists of a lower architrave, middle frieze and upper cornice.
The intentional convex curve of the upper two-thirds of a column, introduced to counteract the optical illusion of concavity produced by straight columns.
A two part adhesive system consisting of epoxy resin and epoxy hardener. Used for bonding ceramic tile or stone to backing material.
A two-part grout system consisting of epoxy resin and epoxy hardener. Made to have impervious qualities, stain and chemical resistant. Used to fill joints between tiles.
The larger pieces of stone purposefully exposed for their color and texture in a cast slab.
A tile formed by forcing the clay material through a mold for the desired shape versus pressing the tile.
The exposed portion
of a stone; also refers to the edge treatment on various cutting stock
Loose blocks separated from ledges by natural processes and scattered through or upon the regolith (soil) cover; applied also to similar transported materials, such as glacial boulders and cobbles.
The prominent tile used when creating a pattern to cover a wall or floor. The field tiles can be surrounded by BORDER tiles.
Surface treatments, commonly available as: SMOOTH – machine finished by saw, grinder or planer Honed – dull sheen, without reflections POLISHED – mirror gloss with sharp reflections MACHINE TOOLED – 4-cut, 6-cut, chiseled, axed, pointed, etc. CHAT SAWN – irregular and uneven markings. SPLIT FACE – concave-convex ROCK FACE – convex thermal–plane surface with flame finish applied by mechanically controlled means to create surface coarseness Special finishes of many kinds are available to meet design requirements.
Thin slabs of stone used for flagging or paving walks, driveways, patios, etc.; generally fine-grained sandstone, bluestone, quartzite or slate although other stones may be used.
A horizontal belt course sometimes decorated with sculptural relief, occurring directly under a cornice.
The granular surface of stone resulting from gang sawing alone.
A tile coated with glass-forming minerals and ceramic stains. Typically, they have a matte, semi-gloss or high-gloss finish. They can offer better stain and moisture resistance than unglazed tile.
The composition and texture of particles, crystals, sand, or rock.
A fine to coarse-grained, igneous rock formed by volcanic action and consisting of quartz, feldspar, mica, and accessory minerals. Granite-type rocks include those of similar texture and origin.
A man-made product certified for low chemical emissions.
Stones that have been metamorphosed or otherwise so altered that they have assumed a distinctive greenish color owing to the presence of one or more of the following minerals: chlorite, epidote, or actinolite.
Mortar of pouring consistency used to fill the joints between tiles
Most commonly used to describe the stone in front of the fire chamber and in many cases extending on either or both sides of the front of the fire chamber.
A super fine smooth finish.
One of the three main classifications of rock (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic). Formed when magma (molten rock within the earth) cools. Includes granite and basalt.
To cut inwardly or engrave, as in an inscription.
The last wedge-shaped stone, or voussoir, placed in the crown of an arch.
Italian word for a semi-polished surface finish
A sedimentary rock composed of calcium carbonate; includes many varieties. (See oolitic limestone; dolomitic limestone; crystalline limestone).
Structurally sound sections of marble that are cemented to the back of marble veneer slabs to give greater strength, additional bearing surface, or to increase joint depth.
A stone beam or horizontal member spanning the top of an opening, such as a doorway or window, and supporting the wall above it.
A condition when one edge of a stone is higher than the adjacent edge.
A decorative border primarily used on walls.
A crystalline rock
composed predominantly of one or more of the following materials: calcite,
dolomite or serpentine, and capable of taking a polish
Built-up construction, usually a combination of materials set in mortar.
One of the three main classifications of rock (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic). Produced from sedimentary or igneous rocks by the action of heat and pressure. Includes Marble, Serpentine, Onyx, Slate and Quartzite.
The change or alteration in a rock caused by exterior elements, such as deep-seated heat and pressure, or intrusion of rock materials.
The junction of two units at an angle, in which the junction line usually bisects at 45-degrees.
Decorative stone used to introduce variety in profile and contour, deviating from a plane surface by projections, curved profiles, recesses, or any combination thereof.
A mixture of cement, lime, sand, and water, used to bond masonry units.
A pattern formed
by inlaying tesserae, or small pieces of stone, tile or other material into a
cement, plaster or mortar matrix. May come in squares, octagons, hexagons or
random shapes mounted for ease of installation
This generally pertains to stones which are formed in layers in the ground. When such stones are cleaved or separated along a natural seam the remaining surface is referred to as a natural cleft surface.
This generally pertains to stones which are formed in layers in the ground. When such stones are cleaved or separated along a natural seam the remaining surface is referred to as a natural cleft surface.
Mortar composed of materials that individually or collectively do not contain
material which will stain; usually has a very low alkali content
A stone profile with a reverse curved edge: concave above, convex below.
A dense, crystalline form of lime carbonate deposited usually from cold-water solutions. Generally translucent and shows a characteristic layering due to mode of accumulation.
A calcite-cemented calcareous stone formed of shells and shell fragments, practically non-crystalline in character. It is found in massive deposits located almost entirely in Lawrence, Monroe and Owen Counties, Indiana and in Alabama, Kansas and Texas. This limestone is characteristically a freestone, without cleavage planes, possessing a remarkable uniformity of composition, texture and structure. It possesses a high internal elasticity, adapting itself without damage to extreme temperature changes.
The introduction into a rock of siliceous material in the form of opal, a hydrous silicate.
That part of an exterior wall that is entirely above the roof line.
Damp-proofing by placing a 1/2″ coat of setting mortar on the back of stones, or the face of the back-up material. Also, elaborate decorative plasterwork or ornamental facing for plaster walls.
A flat inlay of stone floors in closely fitted geometrical or other patterns, often including two or more colors or materials.
Slabs of stone set on other stones to serve as outdoor steps, and leading to a terrace, platform, gate or doorway.
An engaged pier of shallow depth; in classical architecture it follows the height and width of related columns, with similar base and capital.
Stone having arris or a clearly defined outer edge but a face roughly cut with a pitching chisel used along the line which becomes the arris.
The square or rectangular base of a column; a base or pedestal, frequently inscribed, to support a statue or other isolated object; the base block at the juncture of baseboard and trim around an opening.
filling and finishing of mortar joints that have been raked out
The finest and smoothest finish available in stone characterized by a gloss or reflective property. Generally only possible on hard, dense materials.
A tile made
up of 50% feldspar and is fired at a much higher temperature than regular
ceramic tile. This makes porcelain tile much harder and more dense than other
tile products. Because of its highly durable make-up, porcelain is more
resistant to scratches and can withstand temperature extremes. Also, because
porcelain is non-porous, it’s very stain resistant, has very low water
absorption ratings (Less than 0.5%) and thus can be used for interior and
exterior applications as well as heavy-use and commercial areas. Finally,
because porcelain’s color goes all the way through, small scratches or chips
are less noticeable.
PRESSURE RELIEVING JOINT
An open horizontal joint below the supporting angle or hangar located at approximately every floor line and not over 15 feet apart, horizontally, and every 20-30 feet vertically, to prevent weight from being transmitted to the masonry below. These joints are to be caulked with a resilient non-staining material to prevent moisture penetration.
out of stones in a wall to give an effect of ruggedness. The amount each stone
is pulled out can vary between 1/2″ and 1 1/2″. Stones are either pulled out at
the same degree at both ends or sometimes one end is pulled out and the other
end left flush with the wall plane
The location where
a natural deposit of stone is removed from the ground
A dense man-made unglazed tile. Used mostly in commercial spaces because of its slip resistant qualities.
A compact granular rock composed of quartz crystals, usually so firmly cemented as to make the mass homogeneous. The stone is generally quarried in stratified layers, the surfaces of which are unusually smooth. Its crushing and tensile strengths are extremely high. The color range is wide.
Stones at the external corner or edge of a wall emphasized by size, projection, rustication, or by a different finish.
A sinkage in a wall plane.
A that has all edges mechanically finished to achieve a more precise facial dimension.
A narrow flat molding of rectangular profile often used to cover a joint between two elements.
Carved ornament projecting above a cutaway background plane. The ornament or figure can be slightly raised (bas-relief or low-relief), half projection (mezzo-relief), high- (or alto-) relief.
One built over a lintel, flat arch, or smaller arch to divert loads, thus relieving the lower member from excessive loading. Also known as a discharging or safety arch.
Continuation of a molding in a different direction, usually at a right angle.
Stone facing with the finish appearing on both the face and the edge of the same stone – as on the corner of a building.
The depth of stone between its outer face and a window or door set in an opening; the thickness of a wall.
Refers to the heights of stone, generally in veneer; the vertical dimension between two successive steps.
ROCK (PITCH) FACE
Similar to split face, except that the face of the stone is inclined to a given line and plane, producing a bold appearance rather than the comparatively straight face obtained in split face; stones laid up in a masonry wall with natural faces as received from the quarry, or dressed to resemble natural stone.
Reinforcement of a structurally unsound marble by cementing reinforcing rods into grooves or channels cut into the back of the slab.
A product term applied to dimensional stone used for building purposes, chiefly walls and foundations, and consisting of irregularly shaped pieces, partly trimmed or squared, generally with one split or finished face, and selected and specified within a size range.
RUSTIFICATION OR RUSTICATION
Recessing the margin or outer edges of cut stone so that when
placed together a channel or strongly emphasized recess is formed along each
joint. The stone face may be smooth, rough or patterned with its outer edges
tooled smooth or beveled
A flat strip of stone projecting above the floor between the jambs of a door; threshold.
SAND SAWN FINISH
Stone surface left as it comes from a gang saw; moderately
smooth, granular surface varying with the texture and grade of stone
A sedimentary rock consisting usually of quartz cemented with silica, iron oxide or calcium carbonate. Sandstone is durable, has a very high crushing and tensile strength, and a wide range of colors and textures.
A clean cut edge generally achieved by cutting with a diamond blade, gang saw or wire saw.
A finish obtained from the particular process employed to produce building stone. Varies in texture from smooth to rough and is coincident with the type of materials used in sawing; characterized as diamond sawn, sand sawn, chat sawn or shot sawn.
A deep concave molding, or gorge, especially at the base of a column.
A penetrant applied to prevent the absorption of liquids or other debris. Used with porous materials including natural stone, quarry tile and grout. A sealer is not necessary for glazed ceramic tile.
One of the three main classifications of rock (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic). Originally formed mainly in sea water or lakes from the remains of animals and plants, also from transportation and deposition of rock products. Includes limestone, sandstone, travertine and dolomite.
A finish achieved by rubbing (manually or by machine) the rough or high spots off a stone’s exposed surface, leaving a certain amount of the natural surface along with the smoothed areas.
A hydrous magnesium silicate material of igneous origin, generally a very
dark green color with markings of white, light green or black. One of the
hardest varieties of natural building stone
The distance from the finished face of a stone to the face of a back-up wall.
A term referring to the consistency of the shading inherent in all ceramic and stone tiles.
A type of stress. A body is in shear when it is subjected to a pair of equal forces in opposite directions and which act along parallel planes.
Finish obtained by using chilled steel shot in the gang sawing process to produce random markings for a rough surface texture.
A flat stone used under windows, doors and other masonry openings.
A lengthwise cut of a large quarry block of stone approximately 5’x 8′ in
A very fine-grained metamorphic rock derived from sedimentary rock shale. Characterized by an excellent parallel cleavage entirely independent of original bedding, by which cleavage the rock may be split easily into relatively thin slabs.
A stone window or door sill set between the jambs.
The surface texture produced by planer machines plus the removal of objectionable tool marks; also known as smooth planar finish or smooth machine finish.
A massive variety of talc with a soapy or greasy feel, used for hearths,
washtubs, table tops, carved ornaments, chemical laboratories, etc., known for
its stain proof qualities
The finished underside of a lintel, arch, or portico.
A stone fragment that has split or broken off the face of a stone, either by the force of a blow or by weathering. Sizes may vary from chip size to one and two man stones. Spalls are primarily used for filling the large voids in mosaic patterns.
A curtain wall panel filling the space between the top of a window in one story and the sill of the window on the story above.
A beveled or slanted surface.
Division of a rock by cleavage.
SPLIT FACE (SAWED BED)
Usually sawed on the stone bed and split by hand or machine so that the face of the stone exhibits the natural quarry texture.
SPLIT STONE FINISH
Obtained by sawing to accurate heights, then breaking by machine to required bed widths. (Normal bed widths are 3 1/2″.)
SPOT OR SPOTTING
An adhesive contact, usually plaster of Paris, applied between the back of marble veneer and the face of a back-up wall to plum or secure standing marble.
Stone that is cut to one dimension and installed with unbroken vertical
and horizontal joints running the entire length and height of a veneered area
Sometimes synonymous with rock, but more properly applied to individual blocks, masses, or fragments taken from their original formation or considered for commercial use.
A structure produced by deposition of sediments in beds or layers (strata), laminae, lenses, wedges, and other essentially tabular units.
A longitudinally streaked, columnar structure occurring in some marbles, and of the same material as the marble in which it occurs.
A small flat slab or surface of stone especially one bearing or intended to bear an inscription.
A pattern for repetitive marking or for a fabrication operation.
A type of concrete in which chips or pieces of stone, usually marble, are mixed with cement and are ground to a flat surface after setting, exposing the chips which take a high polish.
Three dimensional surface enrichment independent of color.
An adhesive used to attach tiles to a substrate.
A raised member of the floor within the doorjamb.
Dimensional allowance made for a fabricated product
Curvilinear mullions or openwork on windows, window heads, stone panels, etc.
A variety of limestone regarded as a product of chemical precipitation from hot springs. Travertine is cellular with the cells usually concentrated in thin layers that display a stalactitic structure. Some that take a polish are sold as marble, and may be classified as travertine marble under the class of “Commercial Marble.”
A flat stone used as the top walking surface on a step.
A projecting rectangular block used in series in a classical Doric frieze, distinguished by three vertical bands separated by shallow V-shaped grooves. Triglyphs alternate with plain or sculpted panels (metopes).
A tile that has the same colour on the face of the tile as well as the body.
Stone used as decorative items only, such as sills, coping, enframements, etc., with the facing of another material.
Cut so as to present an overhanging part.
A tile that is solid-colored all the way through and does not have a top layer of glaze. This is often referred to as through-body construction. The tile has no additional surface application and is typically more dense and durable than a glazed tile. Suitable for interior and exterior applications. Unglazed tiles do have good slip resistance, however please note that they do require sealing to help prevent staining. They come in various surface treatments and textures.
An arched roof supported on its edges and reinforced, when necessary, by ribs.
Any stone used as a decorative facing material which is not meant to be load bearing.
Wedge-shaped stone components of a masonry arch, carefully formed to support each other when in position.
A cavity in rock; sometimes lined or filled with either amorphous or crystalline material; common in calcereous rocks such as marble or limestone.
A horizontal member anchored to a masonry wall to which other structural elements may be attached; also called head plate.
WALLS – BEARING
A wall supporting a vertical load in addition to its own weight. Cavity – A wall in which the inner and outer wythes are separated by an air space, but united by metal ties. Composite – A wall in which the facing and backing are of different materials but which are united together with bond stones to exert a common reaction under load. Veneer or Faced – A wall in which a thin facing and a backing are of different materials, but not so bonded as to exert a common reaction under load.
A bonder or metal piece which connects wythes of masonry to each other or to other materials.
WALL TIE, CAVITY
A rigid, corrosion-resistant metal tie which bonds two wythes of a cavity wall. It is usually steel, 3/16″ in diameter, and formed in a “Z” shape or a rectangle.
Generally a condition experienced only in flagging or flagstone materials; very common with flagstone materials that are taken from the ground and used in their natural state. To eliminate warping in such stones, it would be necessary to further finish the material, whether by machining, sand rubbing, honing, or polishing.
A sloped area or the area water will run over.
Typically a strip in the bottom of a door sill serving as a baffle to the entrance of water.
A projection of lower masonry on the outside of the wall slightly above the ground. Often a damp course is placed at the level of the water table to prevent upward penetration of ground water.
An expression used in the marble finishing trade to indicate the filling of natural voids with color blended material.
Openings placed in mortar joints of facing material at the level of flashing to permit the escape of moisture.
(Wined) – A twisting warp from cutting slabs in the gang saws.
A method of cutting stone by passing a twisted, multi-strand wire across the stone, and immersing the wire in a slurry of abrasive material.
The inner or outer part of a cavity wall.